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 QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE

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wreig
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PostSubject: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Mon Oct 13, 2008 12:48 pm

Sebagai langkah proaktif, Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia ingin menasihati semua pakar perubatan dan pegawai perubatan sentiasa memantau sekiranya gejala masalah buah pinggang di kalangan bayi akibat keracunan melamin mungkin berlaku seperti:

* Bayi menangis tanpa sebab terutamanya ketika kencing
* Muntah-muntah
* Kencing berdarah (dapat dilihat dengan mata kasar atau melalui mikroskop)
* Kencing sedikit atau tidak kencing langsung
* Keluar batu karang semasa kencing
* Tekanan darah tinggi, sembab dan kesakitan bila terlanggar di bahagian ginjal
* Tanda-tanda hasil dari komplikasi masalah ginjal seperti demam yang tidak diketahui puncanya hasil dari jangkitan kuman/bakterimia atau disebabkan oleh stasis (WHO)

Keadaan seperti di atas jarang berlaku di kalangan kanak-kanak. Sekiranya mengesyaki gejala ini di kalangan mereka, Y. Bhg. Dato’/Datin/Tuan/Puan, perlulah melaporkan kepada ibu pejabat Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia dengan kadar segera.

Melapor Kes
Kes definisi untuk tujuan pelaporan adalah
'An infant with kidney stones or other kidney problems (e.g. anuria, renal failure) having consumed powdered infant formula produced in China before 6 August 2008, and where other potential causes of kidney stones have been excluded by differentials diagnosis'- INFOSAN Emergency Alert Update No.2

Semua kes-kes yang mempunyai/disyaki gejala ini perlu dirujuk kepada pakar pediatrik di hospital berdekatan untuk rawatan lanjut.

Semua kes yang mempunyai/disyaki gejala ini perlu dilaporkan kepada:

Bilik Gerakan Kebangsaan CPRC
Bahagian Kawalan Penyakit
Jabatan Kesihatan Awam
Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia
Aras3, Blok E10, Kompleks E
Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan
62590, Putrajaya
Tel:03-88810200/300, 013-6699700
Fax: 03-88810400

Questions and Answers on melamine

What is melamine?
Melamine is an organic base chemical most commonly found in
the form of white crystals rich in nitrogen

What is melamine generally used for?
Melamine is widely used in plastics, adhesives,
countertops, dishware, whiteboards and fertilizers.

Why was melamine added into milk and powdered infant
formula In China , where adulteration has occurred, water has been added to raw milk to add to its volume. As a result of this dilution the milk will have a lower protein concentration. Companies using the milk for further production (e.g. of powdered infant formula) would normally check the protein level through a test measuring nitrogen content. Therefore the addition of melamine - because of its rich nitrogen content - could increase the level of nitrogen, which again masquerade as falsely high protein levels as the standard
protein test only measures nitrogen content. This means that the adulterated milk would have an artificially highnitrogen level, which would be interpreted erroneously as a 'normal' or 'high' protein level. Addition of melamine into food is not approved by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius (food standard commission), or by any national authorities.

Has melamine been found in other food products?
In 2007, melamine was found in pet feed manufactured in China and exported to the United States which caused the death of a large number of dogs and cats due to kidney failure.
In the present event, melamine contamination has been found in a number of different brands of powdered infant formula, in one brand of a frozen yogurt dessert and in one brand ofcanned coffee drink. All these products were most probably manufactured using ingredients made from melamine contaminated milk.

What are the health effects of melamine consumptions in humans?
While there are no direct human studies on the effect of melamine on humans, extrapolation from animal studies can be used to estimate adverse health effects. When combined with another chemical (e.g. cyanuric acid which is also present in melamine powder) melamine can form crystals which cangive rise to kidney stones. These small crystals can also block the small tubes in the kidney potentially stopping the production of urine, kidney failure and in some cases death. Melamine has also been shown to have carcinogenic effects in animals.

What are the symptoms and signs of melamine poisoning?
Irritability, blood in urine, little or no urine, signs of kidney infection, high blood pressure

What is the cure for kidney failure?
Patients may receive various types of treatment, depending on the severity of kidney failure. Treatment may include infusion of fluids and urine alkalinisation, administration of sodium bicarbonate and insulin, blood and peritoneal dialysis, or surgical removal of kidney stones.

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Tue Oct 14, 2008 10:04 am

melamine ianyak sebansa plastik tauka getah skraf ari batang pun getah...

melamine dikena ngenyamai ka produk tusu nembiak awak ke sida gemuk,tapi melamine tok ngundan getah ti ngasuh buah pingang rusok dibalut plastik.

gula batu ti famus suba ianya white rabbit tauka gula batu tusu..ti lela di lidah udah kena benned laban ngundan getah ti mauh...

engka enda lama g chuing gum pun diharam laban ngundan getah...
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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 15, 2008 10:46 am

his article is about the chemical substance called melamine. The term "melamine" may also be used to refer to the plastic melamine resin.
Not to be confused with the pigment melanin and the hormone melatonin.

Melamine is an organic base and a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. Like cyanamide, it contains 66% nitrogen by mass and, if mixed with resins, has fire retardant properties due to its release of nitrogen gas when burned or charred, and has several other industrial uses. Melamine is also a metabolite of cyromazine, a pesticide. It is formed in the body of mammals who have ingested cyromazine. It has been reported that cyromazine can also be converted to melamine in plants.
Melamine combines with cyanuric acid to form melamine cyanurate, which has been implicated in the Chinese protein export contamination.



source: wikipedia.org

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Last edited by Rie [Razgriz] AC5 on Wed Oct 15, 2008 10:47 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : add-on.)
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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 15, 2008 10:49 am

Etymology

The German word Melamin was coined by combining the names of two other chemical products: Melam (a distillation derivative of ammonium thiocyanate) and Amin.

source: wikipedia.org

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 15, 2008 11:02 am

Uses

Melamine is combined with formaldehyde to produce melamine resin, a very durable thermosetting plastic, and melamine foam, a polymeric cleaning product. The end products include countertops, dry erase boards, fabrics, glues, housewares and flame retardants. Melamine is one of the major components in Pigment Yellow 150, a colorant in inks and plastics.

Melamine also enters the fabrication of melamine poly-sulfonate used as superplasticizer for making high-resistance concrete. Sulfonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) is a polymer used as cement admixture to reduce the water content in concrete while increasing the fluidity and the workability of the mix during its handling and pouring. It results in concrete with a lower porosity and a higher mechanical strength exhibiting an improved resistance to aggressive environments and a longer life-time.

The use of melamine as fertilizer for crops had been envisaged during the '50s and '60s because of its high nitrogen content (2/3). However, the hydrolysis reactions of melamine leading to the nitrogen mineralisation in soils are very slow, precluding a broad use of melamine as fertilizing agent.
Melamine derivatives of arsenical drugs are potentially important in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis.

Melamine use as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) for cattle was described in a 1958 patent. In 1978, however, a study concluded that melamine "may not be an acceptable non-protein N source for ruminants" because its hydrolysis in cattle is slower and less complete than other nitrogen sources such as cottonseed meal and urea.

Melamine is sometimes illegally added to food products in order to increase the apparent protein content. Standard tests such as the Kjeldahl and Dumas tests estimate protein levels by measuring the nitrogen content, so they can be misled by adding nitrogen-rich compounds such as melamine.

source: wikipedia.org

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 15, 2008 11:23 am

Toxicity

Melamine by itself is nontoxic in low doses, but when combined with cyanuric acid it can cause fatal kidney stones due to the formation of an insoluble melamine cyanurate. Melamine is described as being "Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Chronic exposure may cause cancer or reproductive damage. Eye, skin and respiratory irritant.” However, the toxic dose is on a par with common table salt with an LD50 of more than 3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight. FDA scientists explained that when melamine and cyanuric acid are absorbed into the bloodstream, they concentrate and interact in the urine-filled renal microtubules, then crystallize and form large numbers of round, yellow crystals, which in turn block and damage the renal cells that line the tubes, causing the kidneys to malfunction.

Acute toxicity

Melamine is reported to have an oral LD50 of 3248 mg/kg based on rat data. It is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes. The reported dermal LD50 is >1000 mg/kg for rabbits.[15] In a 1945 study, large doses of melamine were given orally to rats, rabbits and dogs with "no significant toxic effects" observed.
A study by USSR researchers in the 1980s suggested that melamine cyanurate, commonly used as a fire retardant, could be more toxic than either melamine or cyanuric acid alone.[18] For rats and mice, the reported LD50 for melamine cyanurate was 4.1 g/kg (given inside the stomach) and 3.5 g/kg (via inhalation), compared to 6.0 and 4.3 g/kg for melamine and 7.7 and 3.4 g/kg for cyanuric acid, respectively.
A toxicology study conducted after recalls of contaminated pet food concluded that the combination of melamine and cyanuric acid in diet does lead to acute renal failure in cats.

Chronic toxicity

Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, which can lead to bladder cancer.
A study in 1953 reported that dogs fed 3% melamine for a year had the following changes in their urine: (1) reduced specific gravity, (2) increased output, (3) melamine crystalluria, and (4) protein and occult blood.
A survey commissioned by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians suggested that crystals formed in the kidneys melamine combined with cyanuric acid, "don't dissolve easily. They go away slowly, if at all, so there is the potential for chronic toxicity."

source: wikipedia.org

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 15, 2008 11:28 am


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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Tue Oct 21, 2008 10:34 am

"dont eat melamine and drive"this message broght to you by ministery of Healht.
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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Tue Oct 21, 2008 12:48 pm

salah ejaan health d par... uji peda baru ayat t ujung skali ( healht)

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Tue Oct 21, 2008 1:25 pm

health....pia ia parr
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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Wed Oct 22, 2008 5:06 pm

apuuuuuuuuuuu~

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Fri Oct 24, 2008 11:23 am

tekenyit baru ga Sia ney...

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Fri Oct 24, 2008 7:15 pm

nya meh~ laban roy salah spell~

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PostSubject: Re: QUESTION AND ANSWER ON MELAMINE   Thu Feb 26, 2009 11:54 pm

What a Face What a Face
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